Blood Pressure

Blood pressure is the pressure inside your blood vessels, both as your heart is pumping blood through them and while the heart is relaxed. If too high, the condition can cause health problems, so keeping your blood pressure at a proper level is essential. If it is slow then you could face faintness, weakness, dizziness which is also a major concern. The blood pressure is measured by watching the two factors

  • Systolic
  • Diastolic

Reasons, Occurrence and Risk factors

The causes of high blood pressure vary. Causes may include narrowing of the arteries, a greater than normal volume of blood, or the heart beating faster or more forcefully than it should.

The various causes of blood pressure are as follows:

Primary Factors
The increase of blood pressure when the reason is not known and can go up normally is a primary risk factor.

Secondary Factors

  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Coarctation of the aorta
  • Hyperparathyroidism
  • Acromegaly
  • Certain medicines, such as birth control pills
  • Kidney disease
  • Sleep Apnea
  • Preeclampsia
  • Obesity
  • Smoking
  • Pregnancy
  • Tension
  • Being physically inactive
  • High salt and sodium intake
  • Low potassium intake due to not eating enough fruits and vegetables
  • Excessive alcohol consumption
  • Diabetes


People who do have symptoms may experience headache, dizziness, and blurred vision. But the symptoms should be reported to the doctor to prevent any organ failure.
The common blood pressure symptoms are as follows:

  • Headache
  • Dizziness
  • Blurred vision
  • Nausea
  • Pain on the neck and shoulders
  • Problem in breathing

Signs and Tests

  • The test of blood pressure can be done anywhere at home or at doctor’s place by monitoring with the normal blood pressure reading machine.
  • A blood pressure measurement is taken by temporarily stopping the flow of blood in an artery (usually by inflating a cuff around the upper arm) and then listening for the sound of the blood beginning to flow through the artery again as air is released from the cuff.
  • As blood flows through the artery, it can be heard through a stethoscope placed on the skin over the artery. Blood pressure is recorded as two measurements.
  • The reading on the gauge when blood flow is first heard is called the systolic pressure. Systolic pressure represents the peak blood pressure that occurs when the heart contracts.
  • The reading on the gauge when blood flow can no longer be heard is the diastolic pressure. Diastolic pressure represents the lowest blood pressure that occurs when the heart relaxes between beats.

Blood Pressure Prevention

Some lifestyle changes that affect the risk factors can not only help prevent high blood pressure, but those who are suffering from this problem, these lifestyle changes can help lower blood pressure as well.

  • Weight loss
  • Exercise and Meditation
  • Following a healthy diet by eating more fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy foods
  • Slowing down on the salt in your diet
  • Drinking less or stopping alcohol
  • Reducing smoking

Blood Pressure Treatment

There are several categories of medication used to treat high blood pressure. It is very necessary to follow a healthy diet and an exercise regime along with the medications to maintain a healthy measurement of blood pressure:

Some category medications which are commonly prescribed for high blood pressure:

  • Beta blockers
  • Diuretics
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors)
  • Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs)
  • Calcium channel blockers (CCBs)
  • Alpha blockers
  • Alpha-beta blockers
  • Nervous system inhibitors
  • Vasodilators

Some prescribed medications are commonly prescribed are Metoprolol, Lasix, Zentril, Cozaar, Diovan and others.