HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus is often spread through unprotected sex with an infected partner or through contact with contaminated blood, such as by sharing needles or syringes. Many people do not have symptoms when first infected with the virus, although some will have a flu-like illness within a month or two. HIV is a virus by which the disease of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) happens.

HIV Reasons, Occurrence and Risk Factors

HIV is a virus which is generally transmitted from one body to anther and it can be by any modes. To become infected with HIV, infected blood, semen or vaginal secretions must enter your body. HIV does not become infected through ordinary contact like hugging, kissing, dancing or shaking hands with someone who has HIV or AIDS. HIV can’t be transmitted through the air, water or via insect bites.

The most common ways of HIV transmission are as follows:

  • Through unprotected sex
  • Blood transfusions
  • Sharing needles
  • From mother to child

HIV Symptoms

As the immune system becomes weaker, a variety of complications start to take over. For many people, the first symptoms of HIV are large lymph nodes or "swollen glands" that may be enlarged for more than three months. Other symptoms of HIV often experienced months to years before the onset of AIDS include:

  • Lack of energy
  • Weight loss
  • Frequent fevers and sweats
  • Persistent or frequent yeast infections oral or vaginal
  • Persistent skin rashes or flaky skin
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease (in women) that does not respond to treatment
  • Short-term memory loss

HIV Signs and Tests

A variety of tests for HIV are available, such as urine tests, blood tests, oral tests, and others. They look for the presence of antibodies to HIV proteins that fight the infection.

Blood tests

  • ELISA or EIA for initial screening
  • Western blots to confirm the diagnosis
  • Other, newer blood tests

Other Tests

  • Urine tests
  • Oral tests
  • Rapid tests
  • Home tests

HIV Prevention

Many people infected with HIV have no symptoms. Therefore, there is no way of knowing with certainty whether your sexual partner is infected, unless he or she has repeatedly tested negative for the virus and has not engaged in any risky behavior.

People who do not have HIV need interventions that will enable them to protect themselves from becoming infected.

People who are already living with HIV need knowledge and support to protect their own health and to ensure that they don’t transmit HIV to others called as “positive prevention”. Positive prevention has become increasingly important as improvements in treatment have led to a rise in the number of people

Some of the safety measures are there to prevent HIV from spreading:

  • Using condoms while having sex
  • Using a fresh needle every time before having any vaccine or injection
  • Test or examine the blood very cautiously in all measures before providing it to a patient
  • Pregnant women should examine themselves on HIV that if they are not affected with this disease so that it may affect the unborn child.

HIV Treatment

HIV is typically treated with medications. These medications can slow the spread of the virus in the body and delay the start of opportunistic infections. Combinations of different drugs can also be helpful. While taking multiple drugs can increase the effectiveness of treatment for HIV, many people experience some side effects with the drugs.

Medicines used in this problem such as Ziagen, Viread, Emtriva, Sustiva, Kaletra, Lexiva etc.